Friday, February 24, 2012

Overview of the Education in the the glory of Islam

Overview of the Education in the the glory of Islam
Overview of the Education in the the glory of Islam
In the pre-Islamic period, education was almost no significance. The nomads only know one system: oral transmission. However, since the days of Islam, everything changed. Islam emphasizes the importance of education and learning from the beginning. In fact, there may be no more emphasis on religion is a matter of science, education and learning rather than Islam. Suffice it to go down the first verse to the Prophet Muhammad with the sentence Iqra 'as evidence of the significance and the height of the search for knowledge in Islam. In addition, Islam also known as the "religion of science", "religious sense" and "religious books".
In general, education in the context of Islamic civilization is defined as an attempt to understand, realize and practice the divine revelation and follow the teachings and example of the Prophet. Unfortunately, the Islamic education as a functional system to understand and absorb the pedagogical principles of the Qur'an and Sunnah that is often confused with the latter the subject of academic study only. As a result, only a moral lesson study materials but never expected a transformative effect.

The old concept of adab is a good moral, religious knowledge and basics and a love of poetry and Arab culture. In his studies of Egyptian families, I. Lichtenstadter, education, manners are still living in Arab societies as in Egypt.

In general there are two growing areas of science in the Islamic world, especially in the East Tengha: al-'Ulum al-naqliyah (traditional science) and al-' Ulum al-'Aqliyah (rational sciences. This division is the The most commonly recognized by Muslim scholars since the early days. As such, this division has a validity of up to a certain extent. However, according to Bazarghi, sometimes the division is precisely the wrong impact on the understanding that traditional science has no grounds rational.

Fields of science teaching Islam is the Qur'an, Arabic grammar, exegesis, fiqh, hadith, usul al-fiqh (principles of Islamic law inference), usul al-hadith (hadith transmission principles), the history of the Prophet and the friends and being among the most important is adab. In some works of Muslim scholars, sciences such as philosophy, logic, theology (kalam science), physics, metaphysics, mathematics, astronomy, geography, medicine and Arab literature also sometimes categorized as a field of Islamic sciences. This is probably due to the positive interaction between Islamic sciences and the sciences that have been mentioned.

Shams Inati and Elsayed (1996) provide broad exposure and at length about the relationship of Arabic literature (adab) with other fields of science, especially the ethics and philosophy. While Shukri B. Abed (1996) further suggests a close relationship between the Arabic language with all other fields of science in Islam. The correlation between the fields of science with other disciplines that have been presented with a draw in the encyclopedia History of Islamic Philosophy, Part II, edited by Seyyed Hussein Nasr and Oliver Leaman.

Pre-modern Muslims proven to achieve the level of literacy and familiarity with the text that is higher than the European nations at that time (Berkey, 2004). Historical records of the particulars of Islamic education provide a lot of perspective about the nature and functions of educational institutions, but little is explained about the relationship of the method with other methods in different periods (Küng 2007). Nevertheless, Küng states that the overlap is not only inevitable, but it gives insight to the existing education system (Küng, 2007).

In regard to educational institutions, Muslim scholars note that some well-known term. For basic education of the Koran, instructors usually divided into two huffâzh (the penghafal) and Kuttab (the authors). Both groups usually went on to teach at halaqah (study circles in the mosque) and madrasas (schools devoted to teaching the Islamic primary and secondary). Apart from the two institutions mentioned above, non dar al-polar (library) also a place of popular education.

A. L. Tibawi in Origin and Character of al-Madrasah, (Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 25, no. 2 [1962]) states that typically have a distinctive character of madrasa language of instruction is Arabic. Madrassa curriculum typically covers the entire field of Islamic studies mentioned above.

One of the most popular institution in the golden era of Islam, ie, in the Abbasid era is the Bayt al-Hikmah (بيت الحكمة). Bayt al-Hikmah library and the institution itself is a translation of Greek works into Arabic in Baghdad, Iraq. He is a core institution in the translation movement of the motor development of science in the Islamic era. Founder of the Bayt al-Hikmah was named the Abbasid ruler Harun al-Rashid and then reached a peak in the era of his son's love of scientific activities, al-Ma'mun, who reigned from 813-833 AD.

At the time of al-Ma'mun set up observatories were also different, and the Bayt al-Hikmah became the center of Islamic teaching of science, including mathematics, astronomy, medicine, alchemy and chemistry, zoology and geography. At that era, the development of Baghdad known as the largest science center in that period. Known to scholars who work there, among others, Al-Khwarizmi, the father of algebra, which is taken from the title of his book Kitab al-Jabr.

Continued development of

In the later period, many young Europeans who studied in Islamic universities in Spain such as Cordoba, Sevilla, Malaca, Granada and Salamanca. Cordoba at that time had a library containing 400,000 books in various branches of science. During the study at these universities, European scholars were actively translating the books of Muslim scholars. Translation center in Toledo at that time. After they returned to their country, they established schools and universities alike. The first university founded in Europe was the University of Paris in the year 1213 AD At the end of medieval times then stood 18 universities in mainland Europe. At various universities that taught the sciences derived from Islamic universities such as medicine, science and philosophy.

Among the European scholars who studied in Islamic universities in Spain are Petrus Alfonsi (1062 AD) that when he returned to his country, in England, he was appointed personal physician to King Henry I (1120 M). In addition to being a doctor, he teamed up with Walcher astronomy subjects based on knowledge of Muslim scholars and scientists that he got from Spain. Accordingly also by Adelard of Bath (1079-1192 AD) who had studied also at Toledo, and after he returned to England, he became a famous scholar in the country.

Another European scholar who is a well known Roman Christian priest from England named Roger Bacon (1214-1292 AD). He studied Arabic at Paris (1240-1268 AD) and through the ability of Arabic and Latin, that he can read the original text and translate it. Original books and translations are brought to the University of Oxford England. Among the books translated include Manzir Al Hasan Ibn Ali Al works Haytsam (965-1038 AD). In the book there is a theory of the microscope and a lot of gunpowder is said to be the work of Roger Bacon can be found.

Due to the development of Islamic science is the study of Greek philosophy in Europe developed on a large scale and finally triggers the movement of the Renaissance in the 14th century, the reform in the 16th century AD, rationalism in the 17th century AD, and aufklarung in the 18th century M.

The fate of Muslim Spain after the death of Abu Abdullah Muhammad was quite tragic. They had suffered many setbacks. Now, only the Islamic heritage buildings that can be used as a keepsake.
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