Saturday, February 11, 2012

The nature of teaching and learning for people

The nature of teaching and learning for people

The nature of teaching and learning for people - Learning is one of the factors that influence and play an important role in the formation of personal and individual behavior. Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata (2005) mentions that some of the greatest individual development takes place through learning activities. So, what actually learn it?

Below is presented of a sense of learning from the experts:

* Moh. Surya (1997): "learning can be defined as a process undertaken by individuals to acquire new behavior changes as a whole, as a result of the individual's own experience in interacting with their environment".
* Witherington (1952): "learning is a change in personality that is manifested as patterns of response that a new form of skills, attitudes, habits, knowledge and skills".
* Crow and Crow (1958): "learning is acquired habits, knowledge and a new attitude".
* Hilgard (1962): "learning is the process by which an emerging behavior or behavior change due to appear in response to something the situation"
* In Vesta and Thompson (1970): "learning is a relatively sedentary behavior change as a result of experience".
* Gage & Berliner: "learning is a process of behavior change that comes from experience"
Learn from some of the above definition, the keywords of the study is the change in behavior. In this case, Moh Surya (1997) suggests the characteristics of behavioral change, namely:

1. Changes in conscious and deliberate (intentional).
Changes in behavior that occurs is a conscious and deliberate effort of the individual concerned. So also with the results, the individual concerned to realize that in itself has been a change, such as increasing their knowledge or skills is increasing, compared to before he was to follow a process of learning. For example, a student is learning about the psychology of education. He realized that he was seeking to learn about the Educational Psychology. Likewise, after studying Psychology she realizes that she has been a change in behavior, by acquiring some knowledge, attitudes and skills related to Educational Psychology.

2. Continuous change (continuous).
Increased knowledge or skills possessed essentially a continuation of the knowledge and skills have been acquired previously. Likewise, knowledge, attitudes and skills that have earned it, will be the basis for the development of knowledge, attitudes and skills of the next. For example, a student has learned about the Educational Psychology "nature study". When he followed the course "Teaching and Learning Strategies", then the knowledge, attitudes and skills of "nature study" will be continued and can be used in following the course "Teaching and Learning Strategies".

3. Functional changes.
Any behavior changes that occur can be utilized for the benefit of the individual life, both for the benefit of present and future. Example: a student learn about the psychology of education, the knowledge and skills in educational psychology can be used to learn and develop themselves and learn the behavior and the behavior of the learners develop later when he became a teacher.

4. Changes are positive.
Behavioral changes that occur are normative and showed the direction of progress. For example, a student before learning about the Psychology of Education considers that in the Prose of Teaching and Learning need not consider individual differences or personal development and behavior of learners, but after following the teaching of Psychology of Education, he understands and intends to apply the principle - the principle of individual differences and principles of development of the individual if he would become a teacher.

5. Changes which are active.
To acquire new behaviors, the individual actively trying to make changes. For example, students want to acquire new knowledge about the psychology of education, the students are actively reading and reviewing educational psychology books, discussing with friends about the psychology of education and so on.
6. Change of a harvester.
Changes in behavior that is obtained from the learning process tends to settle and become an inherent part in him. For example, students learn to operate a computer, then mastery of computer skills will be settled and inherent in the student.

7. Changes aimed and directed.
Individual learning activities there must be objective to be achieved, both short-term objectives, medium term and long term. For example, a student studying educational psychology, the objectives to be achieved in the short term he might want to acquire the knowledge, attitudes and skills of educational psychology in the form of graduation to earn an A. While the long-term goals he wants to be effective teachers with adequate competence of Educational Psychology. The various activities carried out and directed to achieve these goals.

8. Changes in overall behavior.
Changes in learning behavior is not just acquiring knowledge alone, but including also obtain a change in attitude and skill. For example, students learn about "Learning Theories", in addition to obtaining information or knowledge about "Learning Theories", he also earned a position on the importance of a master teacher "Theories of Learning". So also, he acquired skills in implement "Learning Theories".

According to Gagne (Abin Makmun Shamsuddin, 2003), the change is the result of learned behavior that can take the form:
1. Verbal information, ie the control of information in verbal form, either in writing or in writing, for example, giving the names of an object, definition, and so forth.
2. Intellectual skills, ie skills of the individual in interaction with its environment by using symbols, for example: the use of mathematical symbols. Included in the intellectual skill is proficiency in discriminating (discrimination), understand concrete concepts, abstract concepts, rules and laws. These skills are needed in dealing with problem solving.
3. Cognitive strategies; an individual's ability to perform the overall control and management activities. In the context of the learning process, cognitive strategies, namely the ability to control memory and the way - the way of thinking for an effective activity occurs. Emphasis on intellectual skills of learning outcomes, while cognitive strategies more emphasis on the thought process.
4. Attitude, is the learning outcomes of an individual's ability to select a range of actions to be taken. In other words. Attitude is a state within the individual who will provide vertindak trend in the face of an object or event, in which there are elements of thoughts, feelings and thoughts that accompany the readiness to act.
5. Motor skills; is a skills learning outcomes which are controlled by muscle movement and physical.

Meanwhile, Moh. Surya (1997) suggested that the study will appear in:

1. Habits, such as: learners learn the language again and again avoid the tendency of using the wrong words or structures, so that eventually he was accustomed to use language properly and correctly.
2. Skills, such as: writing and that despite the exercise of its motor, the skills it requires careful coordination of movement and awareness is high.
3. Observation; the process of receiving, interpreting, and give meaning to incoming stimuli through the senses is objectively so that learners are able to achieve a correct understanding.
4. Associative Thinking: the thinking by associating with other things by using the memory.
5. Rational and critical thinking that is using the principles and the basics of understanding in answering critical questions such as "how" (how) and the "why" (why).
6. Attitude that is relatively persistent tendency to react in a way good or bad for certain people or goods in accordance with the knowledge and belief.
7. Inhibition (to avoid the redundant).
8. Appreciation (appreciate the works of quality.
9. Affective behavior of the behavior concerned with feelings of fear, anger, sadness, joy, disappointment, love, hate, anxiety and so on.
Meanwhile, according to Bloom, behavioral changes that occur as a result of learning involves changes in the region (domain) cognitive, affective and psychomotor, and their level of its aspects.

The nature of teaching and learning for people
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The nature of teaching and learning for people
The nature of teaching and learning for people
The nature of teaching and learning for people


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