Tuesday, February 28, 2012

understand the German Education System


understand the German Education System
understand the German Education System: Pre-College Education

the German Education System
In contrast to Indonesia's education system of three elementary-junior-senior high school, Germany has only two levels of education Pre Universities, namely basic education (Grundschule) and secondary education (Gymnasium, Realschule or Berufschule).

Study Pre-College Education in Germany requires the normal travel time for 13 years (unlike in Indonesia, where primary education, junior-senior high school can be completed in just 12 years old). Primary school education (Grundschule) is given from grade 1-6, and after that the students are given the opportunity to choose to continue into the Gymnasium, Realschule or Berufschule.


Gymnasium is for good students who were considered to continue their education to higher education. This level of classes taken from 7-13, and after graduation they were given a diploma, known as the "Abitur". So before going to college, a student completing primary and secondary education for 13 years. Berufschule intended for students who are prepared to enter the workforce immediately and can not go on to college. Whereas Realschule in the middle of both. If it is considered good, students from the Realschule to a Gymnasium can continue to get the Abitur, or can directly enter the workforce.

understand the German Education System: Higher education

the German Education System
 After obtaining the Abitur, students can directly enroll to the university. In contrast to the prospective student in Indonesia who have to follow the written examination (UMPTN), here prospective students did not have to take the test selection. Prospective students just send her application file, and the university will be directly decided by the Abitur. This can be done for education in Germany, both basic education and higher education, a quality that can be said to be the same.

To ensure a uniform quality in all schools, every child must go to the nearest school that has been designated by the government (When choosing to study in schools other than those designated, then the parents must submit a specific request accompanied by the reasons). Instead, the government also provide teachers and educational facilities are evenly distributed in all schools, both in towns and cities in the far corners of the city.

understand the German Education System: Universities and Fachhochschule

 There are two types of higher education in Germany, the Universität (Universit, hereinafter referred to as UNI) and the Fachhochschule (university applied, hereinafter referred to as FH).

Differences between UNI and FH of them may be mentioned as follows:

1) Material perkuliahan.UNI more emphasis to the theory and he was given responsibility for developing science. Composition between theory and practice in the UNI around 60:40. In contrast, FH (as the name suggests) is more focused to the applied aspect, the composition of applied theory and 40:60.

2) Schedule of classes. Schedule of lectures at the UNI is October to March for winter (Winter Semester) and April-September for summer (Sommer Semester). In contrast to FH classes begin earlier, ie from August to January for the winter (WS) and from February to July for the summer (SS).

3) When applying for. Because of differences in school time as mentioned in 2), then the schedule for the selection process was also different. Enrollment in FH closed more quickly than in UNI. (Search for schedule more detail)

understand the German Education System: Educational programs are offered in German Education System

 a) The program of classical in German Education System

Unlike in Indonesia and 3 jejang system (Bachelors-Masters-Doctorate), to this day still adhered to the German higher education with two levels, namely Diplom (Dipl.) and Doctor (Dr).

In this Diplom level, in the first years students are required to follow a series of basic courses (known as Grundstudium). After completing all the courses students are given a certificate in Grundstudium Vordiplom, but this is not a degree certificate. To complete Vordiplom, students will take approximately 2.5 years. After getting Vordiplom, then students are allowed to take courses on the expertise of a higher level (known as Hauptstudium). After completing all courses Hauptstudium, then students are allowed to write the final project (known as the Diplomarbeit) as a Diplom degree requirements. Thus, the first official title of Diplom is obtained after a person graduated from UNI or FH.

Among the Diplom Diplom FH UNI and have differences, including:

1) Diplom FH could be completed within 4.5 years while the new UNI Diplom be completed within 5 years.

2) Diplom FH have greater applied loads (60% tuition) compared with the Diplom UNI (40% tuition).

3) Diplom FH is designed to continue to pursue PhD. If the holder of Diplom UNI want to continue to the doctoral program, then the question must follow the first equation. In this phase, required him to follow a series of courses at level Hauptstudium. He could also follow the Master's program before proceeding to the doctoral program. Instead, the owner of UNI Diplom degree can proceed directly to pursue doctoral studies.

b) New Program in German Education System

the German Education System
Under the Bologna Agreement of 1999, all EU countries have agreed to adjust the education system from country to country in the EU. This is necessary because the 1992 Maastricht Treaty to ensure that all EU countries must recognize the similarity degree and professionalism provided by the University as well as professional bodies in other EU countries.

Of the Bologna Agreement 1999, one EU country it is all the higher education system will convert into three levels of Bachelor-Master-Doctorate. It was also agreed that the Bachelor (and takes about 3-4 years) is a first degree awarded by the University, where the owner of the title is believed to have been ready to enter the workforce. Master is a program of education, further education after the bachelor and administered for 2 years.

Based on the 1999 Bologna agreement, UNI and FH in Germany has started to convert the old Diplom-Doctorate system to a new system of Bachelor-Master-Doctorate. Therefore, not surprising that today has no ladder Bachelor-Master in ahmpir all UNI and FH. Later than the year 2010 all the UNI and FH in Germany have already adopted the Bachelor-Master-Doctorate hundred percent. In Feie Universität Berlin and Humboldt Universität zu Berlin even these systems will be incorporated full no later than 2007.
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