Education System in Mexico
|Education System in Mexico|
Education in Mexico is governed by the Secretariat of Public Education (Spanish: Secretaría de Educación Publica, September In English: Secretariat of Public Education). Educational standards set by the department at all levels except in autonomous universities chartered by the government
The 1917 Constitution stipulates that prohibited religious lessons in public schools, but religious associations are free to maintain private schools, which do not receive public funds. Proof of Mexican citizenship is required to attend public schools.
Education in Mexico is divided by class. The students of the family are studying in private schools, complete with various convenience and reference materials, while children from poor backgrounds are usually not able to go to school or go to underprivileged schools. The most marginalized are the Indians. In 1990, estimated at over 40% of Indian population aged fifteen years and over should not be read. This has to realize the obvious education gap among the people of Mexico. But the government has tried with efforts to promote the development of education among the youth.
|Education System in Mexico|
Among other things, the government has established that education is compulsory up to grade six. Unfortunately due to financial pressures, mostly from lower-class students were more interested in work than in school. In Mexico, there is no law requiring secondary education. In grammar school they learn math, social science, "grammar", writing, reading and sports. While the moral values and family at home studying. Add interest income through the working child in a family of meaningful choice between "survival" and education. However, in five years the student to the school attendance is increasing: UNICEF reported 84% of children who start school will reach level five. Low student dropout rate significantly more adolescents will pursue studies on a high and this could help reduce poverty. Today, over 8 million teens have signed up in high school, which is 2 million more than in 1994.
education system in Mexico and evolution during the last half century can be characterized by one characteristic: extensive growth. From 1950 to 2000, total student enrollments in formal education system - elementary school through graduate school - increased more than eightfold from 3:25 million students in 1950 to 28.22 million students in 2000. Secondary school enrollments in the public sector increased from 1.4 million in 1972 to 5.4 million in 2000. Percentage of population with a ninth grade education, up from only 9 percent in 1970 to 41.4 percent in 1998, while in the 1990s alone, enrollment in the tertiary sector grew by 46 percent.
This explosion of growth in enrollments has put tremendous pressure on the Mexican education system. planning education in Mexico is faced with two very different and partly contradictory tasks: on the one hand, to manage and improve education opportunities for a growing population, on the other hand, to improve the quality of education at all levels in the face of this increasing demand. Beginning in the 1980s and continues today, Mexico has undertaken the necessary education reforms such as the national standard and out of the acceptance test at various levels of education, teacher evaluation and professional development mechanisms, evaluation and institutional accreditation, and a set of ranking titles to university program.
EDUCATION LEVEL in the Education System in Mexico
Education System in Mexico can be divided into four levels:
I. Manage (preescolar): ages 5-6
II. Primary education (Educación Primaria): grades 1-6
III. Medium education (Educación Updated): 7-11,12,13 class
IV. Higher education (Depok)
Compulsory Education Extended from Sixth Grade to Ninth Grade in the Education System in Mexico
In 1992, the Secretariat of Public Education officially increased compulsory education from primary school completed (grade six) for the completion of secondary school (ninth grade).
Managing Education (Preescolar) in the Education System in Mexico
|Education System in Mexico|
General Law of Education states that preschool education is a part of basic education, and therefore provided free of charge. In December 2001, the Mexican Congress decided to make a one-year pre-school education mandatory, provisions that became effective in 2004. Otority education is considered an important measure to create a smoother transition for students from kindergarten to school at primary level.
Primary education in the Education System in Mexico
The elementary school consists of classes one to six and has been mandatory since 1917 constitution.
Secondary Education in the Education System in Mexico
Middle level consists of two cycles:
I. grades 7-9 I. Lower-secondary education (Educación Updates básica): the value of 7-9
II. Upper secondary education (Educación superior Updated): the value of 10-11, 12, or 13, depending on the program.
I. Lower-secondary education can be divided into two types:
· Academic lower secondary education (Educación secundaria)
· Technical lower secondary education (Educación secundaria Tecnica)
Under Secondary Education in the Education System in Mexico
General admission requirements of lower secondary schools, including completing basic education and entrance examinations. Lower secondary schools increasingly linked to basic education, while secondary schools, especially in the shade of a tertiary level institution. It should be noted that the term "secundaria" always refers to the study of lower secondary and higher secondary've learned. Lower secondary cycle includes an academic program designed to lead to further education (Escuela secundaria), as well as vocational programs (Escuela Tecnica secundaria). After completing three years of Escuela secundaria, students receive a comprehensive transcript that allows them to apply to the higher secondary schools.
Secondary Education on in the Education System in Mexico
Admission to upper secondary school depending on institutional policy. Exam standards have been developed by CENEVAL / Centro Nacional de Evaluación (National Center for Evaluation) for junior high school graduates and used as a criterion for school admission.
|Education System in Mexico|
Upper-secondary sector, which was developed for the most part separately from the national ministry of education (September), are very diverse in terms of academic programs and the structure of the programs offered. Traditionally, higher secondary courses offered under the auspices of a local university. In recent years, however, September and individual state ministries of education have fostered the development of colegios stand alone, and the number of independent private preparatory schools has steadily increased. Higher secondary university preparation program traditionally has prepared students with discipline - streaming in areas such as pre-engineering, pre-medicine, or the humanities, among others. Recent trends, however, is a program to offer a more general academic curriculum. Graduates (bachilleres) from upper secondary programs attached to universities and institutions of higher education have traditionally been granted automatic admission (pase automatico) for the programs their institution, while students from other places have to sign up to sit the exam admission .
After completing college preparatory academic program, graduates receive a certificate proving the completion of the program transcript. Transcript issued by, or supported by institutions of higher education higher secondary school or government agency affiliated counselors. In general, after completion of academic programs and university preparatory programs combine technical preparation for university study, the transcript will state somewhere that the student has completed a study on "bachillerato" or "preparatoria" (college-preparatory studies). Graduates do not always receive a diploma or certificate showing the conferral of the title bachiller (bachelors), as is usually the case in Latin American countries other.
Higher education in the Education System in Mexico
Higher education system has evolved greatly in the past quarter century. In the period 1971-2000, total enrollment increased more than sixfold from 290 000 to 1.962 million, while in the last decade of the twentieth century there was a 50 percent increase in tertiary enrollments. The "opening" of the system came in response to social demands for access to tertiary studies as a measure of the middle class increased with rapid economic development.
Admission to College in the Education System in Mexico
Completion of academic or technical-school program (preparatoria or bachillerato) is usually required for entry into tertiary level institutions. Certain university departments require students to go complete the higher secondary program in a song that is relevant to their prospective major field of study. For example, students wishing to study medicine in general is required to have completed a program in biology or bachillerato pre-med track. For this reason, graduates from liberal arts programs that want to follow the technical / scientific program may be required to complete a program bachillerato both scientific / technical stream in order to cover the shortfall. However, typically, students exempted from the general courses offered in each program bachillerato, because it just takes a special line courses.
The selection process in higher education institutions are very different, reflecting the demand for admission to their programs. Institutional entrance exam and grade point average bachillerato mechanism is an institution that traditionally utilize in selecting incoming students. Some institutions provide graduate program affiliated bachillerato automatically entered (automatico Pase), while bachillerato require graduates from other institutions to undergo an entrance examination and to meet academic requirements.
Mexico, until recently, no national standardized test to demonstrate the academic performance of high school graduates. Since 1994, higher secondary exit examinations designed by CENEVAL increasingly been used for the process of receiving a higher education. Some universities use the Spanish version of the high school exams designed by the College Board in the United States as an acceptance test.
Autonomy in the Education System in Mexico
The principle of "autonomy" denotes independence of an institution of higher education from government control and intrusion. Ideally autonomous institutions enjoy the academic freedom to teach without interference from government. Although public agencies accept donations from governments, both federal and state universities autonomous right to choose how to implement the budget. Types of public institutions are subject to a greater degree of government oversight as decisions related to budgeting. Autonomous universities also have the right to choose the rector, deans, and government agencies. On other types of public institutions, government officials usually appoint officers responsible for this.
Degrees Awarded in the Education System in Mexico
Superior Tecnico Universitario (University Higher Technician) or Asociado Professional (Professional Associate)
· The length is generally a two-year degree program
Licenciado (diploma holders) or Professional Title
· The length of study at degree varies between 4-6 years of study
· The program usually includes courses and thesis submission.
· The length of the program is usually one year.
· A licentiate degree is usually required for entry.
· The program has graduated more often applied to a full curriculum of Maestría (Master's degree) program, some may be the first year of Maestría.
·. Complete the required courses; a thesis in general is not.
Maestría (Master's degree) in the Education System in Mexico
· 1 to 2 years of full-time study.
· A licentiate degree is usually required for entry.
·. Completing the course and the thesis is generally required.
· At least 2 years of study.
· Completed coursework, original research and dissertation is required.
Credit systems in higher education in the Education System in Mexico
Not all higher education institutions use a course credit system to measure quantitatively the amount to complete the study in a program, and not all credit institutions employ uses the same definition .. The National Association of Universities and Institutions of Higher Education / ANUIES (Asociación de Universidades Instituciones de Educación Superior e) has recommended the following scheme for the allocation of credit: credit each two hours of theoretical instruction and one credit for each hour of practical instruction. The Universidad Nacional Autonomous / UNAM use ANUIES definition. Credit system can also be used in upper secondary program. Licenciado degree students typically collect a minimum of 300 credits over a four year program.
Requirements for diploma holders-Level Degree Program
In order to obtain the final qualification Licenciado or a similar position at most institutions of higher education, students must complete all the coursework that has been determined, the full period of social services (480 hours for one year full-time depending on field of study), presents a thesis or final project, and sit a professional examination, which is usually the thesis defense Some universities give students the option to complete additional courses, usually at the undergraduate level, instead of writing a thesis. Students with an average value of outstanding may be exempt from the requirements of the thesis. Some universities do not require a thesis. Some universities do not require a thesis.
The Carta de Pasante in the Education System in Mexico
Students who have completed all coursework for a particular program, but have not submitted their thesis, may receive a certificate called carta de pasante (leaving certificate) and achieved status as egresado pasante. Students who obtain this status does not have a degree, and they do not have the privilege of professionals in the field of study given to the holder of the title Licenciado. Although the students who obtained egresado pasante classification can not be licensed in their respective profession or practice is fully recognized as a profession, they often find employment in their field of study, often in an auxiliary capacity the more regulated professions. for example, a student who has obtained the carta de pasante, but not the degree Licenciado, in the law program can not be licensed as a lawyer, but it may be worked as a paralegal. In other industries that are less regulated than the law, for example, business administration or engineering, a egresado pasante may find it a highly desirable position without the benefit of the final Licenciado degrees.
Many institutions of higher education students are issued a "certificate" after completing the course in a program, but prior to submission of the thesis is required, and thus before it was officially given the title Licenciado. If the diploma does not state that the student has completed all required coursework, and if the transcript does not clearly indicate the level of completion, further investigation is needed to verify that the student has actually completed all the coursework in the certificate program.
Recent Programs and Policies to Improve Education in Mexico
Due to the tremendous growth in schools, higher education massification, globalization of the economy and education, and increasing pressure on educational resources, education authorities have implemented a lot of new legislation, education reform, and structures that are designed to ultimately improve the efficiency and quality of education in Mexico.
One of the main protagonists in the reform of education in Mexico is ANUIES, the Asociación Nacional de Universidades de Educación Superior e Instituciones (National Association of Universities and Institutions of Higher Education). ANUIES is a non-governmental agency established in 1950 engaged in higher education assessment and planning. It provides advice and work with government agencies and educational policy committee and serves as a clearinghouse for educational information and statistics. ANUIES publishes books and monographs on higher education, and a quarterly newsletter, Revista de la Educación Superior (Higher Education Review). ANUIES consists of 146 of the leading public institutions and private higher education representing 85 percent of Mexico's higher education students.
Changed all Teacher Training Institute for Higher Education Institutions
In 1984, legislation was passed making the admission requirements to the Escuelas Normales bachillerato (trained teachers). Previously, kindergarten and elementary school teachers completed a four-year curriculum after nine years of primary and lower secondary school. Several years were needed for full implementation of this new law. A number of years required for full implementation of this new legislation. With the new law, which was named Normales Escuelas Escuelas Normales superiores (teacher training school and higher).
Currently, Normales Escuelas superiores licentiate offers degree programs for kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools, special education and physical education teacher. They also offer various types of undergraduate and continuing education programs. There are also six-year summer program (Cursos intensivos) is designed for teachers who completed teacher training at secondary level to improve their qualifications to the diploma holders. The Universidad Nacional Pedagógica also offer a special three-year non-residential Licenciado degree program for teacher training at secondary level in addition to other teacher training and educational programs.
University of Technology Systems
In 1991, a new type of higher education institutions, Universidad Tecnológica, was established. Universities that offer this technology applied to two-year program in business administration, technology and applied sciences that lead to superior Tecnico Universitario qualification (university higher technicians). Two-year program consists of six 15-week semesters with 30 percent of the teaching curriculum of theoretical and practical instruction and 70 percent of the project. Until the establishment of this agency, almost all research has to offer both technologies at the secondary level or in four or five year university degree program. Tecnológicas Universidades system is managed by the state ministries of education, and the total number has grown to a total of 60 institutions as of 2006.
Education System in Mexico
Education System in Mexico: World Educations
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