Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Information Education system Austria

Information Education system Austria 
History of Science and Technology in Austria

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Information Education system Austria 
If the contribution of Austria is seen in the progress of science and technology (science), it appeared that the state either in the past and is now producing a series of scientists, engineers and inventors the privilege; but their achievements are not very present in the consciousness of the layman, when compared with the achievement the great artists of Austria. Until now Austria has produced 18 Nobel Prize winners for various categories, a figure which is quite large compared to the population of Austria is only about 7 million inhabitants.

In the field of natural science, Austria produces a line of big names such as Gregor Mendel ("Mendel's Law" to genetics), Christian Doppler (principle of moving the transmitter frequency changes), Ludwig Boltzmann (inventor of the "Boltzman constant"), Erwin Schrödinger (quantum physics pioneer) or Wolfgang Pauli (inventor of the "Pauli principle" to the configuration of electrons in the atom).

In the engineering field, Austria known in metallurgical technology, engineering and manufacturing infrastructure. LD procedure (named after the two "steel city" Austria: Linz and Donawitz) is now used in about 55% of steel production worldwide. Construction "Kaplan turbine" is now commonly used in hydro was the invention of Viktor Kaplan, an Austrian. In infrastructure, technology canalization / wastewater treatment systems as well as the construction of the tunnel (Österreichische Neue Tunnelbauweise / NOT) has an international reputation. Alois Negrelli in designing the draft 1846-1856 making the Suez Canal. In addition Ferdinand Porsche was a big name in the field of development of modern cars.

In the economic field, some pretty famous names are Karl Menger, Eugen Böhm-Bawerk and Friedrich von Wieser (founder of the school of political economy) and Friedrich A. von Hayek (Nobel economics winner).
And in psychology, Sigmund Freud's name is certainly familiar.

Austria is the adherents of the market economy with social awareness of ecological (ökosoziale Marktwirtschaft). Supply and demand are the most important regulatory factors, but in certain levels of intervention can still be done in the interest of the weaker party in terms of economy, or for the protection of the environment.

Austria's economic structure is similar to other Western European countries, namely 3% of the agriculture, industry 36% and 61% of services. Austria's industry is known around the world include: Voest-Alpine Stahl AG (steel and heavy machinery), Elin (energy generation, and electronics), SGP (rail and special vehicles), VAMED (medical devices), Svarowsky (optics), etc..

But if someone been to Austria, the dimensions of science and industry were often obscured by the natural beauty of Austria or the well-preserved cultural heritage whether it be music or art of the old architecture is "live" across the country. Whereas in the antique buildings of cultural heritage was working as normal people with information technology and advanced telecommunications, and under the streets are clean and beautiful it serves one of the transportation infrastructure system and a modern civic building in the world.

Primary and Secondary Education in Austria

Compulsory education in Austria lasts for nine years (from age 6 to 15). After graduating from elementary school or an elementary (Volkschule) the duration of 4 years, two lanes open in general secondary schools, namely School of Public (Hauptschule) and High School (Gymnasiumymnasium or Allgemeine Höhereschule / AHS).

The school at the Hauptschule is 4 years; graduates are then able to follow a specially polytechnic (Polytechnischer Lehrgang) for a year, and after that vocational education in the workplace simultaneously with the apprenticeship system (Lehrling) and the Vocational School (Fachschule or Berufschule) or continue to learn at AHS for 4 years. Can also proceed to the Vocational High School (Beruf Höhereschule / BHS) is the length of five years, such as the Medium School of Engineering (Technische Höhere [Bundes] Lehranstalt / HT [B] L) or the Academy of Commerce (Handels-Akademie/HAK).

AHS students can complete up to grade 8 for the exam of maturity (Reifeprüfung) to get the Matura diploma. With such certificate, the relevant permitted to go on to college. In the EU, Matura diploma is equivalent to the Abitur in Germany, Bakkalaureat in France, or A-Level in English.

Meanwhile, students in grade 5 can also be moved to the AHS BHS to eventually get a "B-Matura". This certificate can be used other than to go on to college, are also able to enter the workforce, and if that question has been 3 years running his profession, he could take the profession, for example in the field of engineering at the associate engineer to get professional engineer degree (Ingenieur / Ing .). This title should be distinguished academic degrees, professional engineer (Diplom Ingenieur / Dipl.-Ing.) Which can only be obtained by study of at least 5 years in college.

Higher education in Austria

History of higher education in Austria is quite old.

Universität Wien in Vienna, established 1365, is the oldest university in the German-speaking Europe.
Universität Graz (1585)
* Full name is:
Karl-Franzens Universität Graz.
Universität Salzburg (1619)
* Full name is:
Paris-Lodron Universität Salzburg
Universität Innsbruck (1669)
* Full name is:
Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck
Veterinärmedizinische Universität (University of Veterinary Medicine), Vienna (1767)
Technische Universität Graz (1811)
Technische Universität Wien, Vienna (1815)
Montan Universität (University of Mining and Metallurgy) in Leoben (1840)
Universität für Bodenkultur (University of Agriculture and Forestry), Vienna (1872)
Wirtschaftuniversität Wien (University of Economics), Vienna (1898)
Universität Linz (1962)
* Full name is:
Johannes Kepler Universität Linz
Universität Klagenfurt (1970)
* Full name is:
Bildungsuniversität Klagenfurt.
Twelve university colleges are set out in the UOG. In addition there are also many high schools are governed by different laws, such as:

Fachhochschule (vocational high schools)
Pädagogische-/ Sozial-Akademie (social academies or colleges of education)
Kunsthochschule (high school art).
Regular high school art higher education listed in the catalog issued by the government of Austria. These schools are:

Akademie der Künste bildenden
(Academy of Fine Arts) in Vienna
Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst
(College of Applied Arts) in Vienna
Music Hochschule für Kunst und Darstellende (High School of Music and Dramatic Arts) in Vienna.
Music Hochschule für Kunst und Darstellende (High School of Music and Dramatic Art) in Salzburg.
Music Hochschule für Kunst und Darstellende (High School of Music and Dramatic Arts) in Graz
Hochschule für Industrielle und künstlerische Gestaltung (College of Arts Industrial Design) in Linz.
For the university set out in the UOG, entry requirements and regulations set by the AHStG studies. AHStG applies to the whole Austria. While the study material is generally determined by other laws, such as for engineering majors are Engineering Act (Technische-Studienrichtungen-Gesetz / TechStG). With this Act, the Minister of Science and Research Studies to determine Regulations (Studien-Ordnung / STO), which set the framework and study materials including weight division semester, for each department. The penjabarannya in detail to the courses / exams (ie in the form Studienplan / StPl), left to each university as well as the smallest unit, the Institute or the Abteilung.

Thus it can be given the assurance that in the same department provided study material more or less the same. In Austria there is a high compatibility between the university, so students can move the university without having to repeat the subject he ever got.

Structure of Higher Education in Austria

UOG is set in the organizational structure of higher education in Austria. The so-called university (Universität) is an institution of higher education authorized to provide an academic doctorate degree. Therefore, some higher education institutions that were previously named Hochschule, changed its name to Universität, although only hold one type of course (eg veterinary Veterinärmedizinische Universität).

University headed by a rector elected by the university senate for a term of 2 years and may be extended once. Officially represent the university's rector in the face of an outside party. In Austria is known as the provost office in Indonesia. Academia all under the authority of the dean of each faculty, the administration under the board of directors (Universitätdirektion), student affairs student union wholly owned by Austria (Österreichische Hochschulerschaft / OH), are areas of cooperation is the duty of cooperation bureau (Außeninstitut) or similar institution. At the national level, the Rector of the whole Austria formed the Council of Rectors (Rektorenkonferenz) is primarily to jointly determine the politics of higher education in Austria.

In terms of academics, the university is divided into several faculty (Fakultät) headed by a dean. Faculty Institute subdivided into lots, which can consist of several department (Abteilung), who each led by a Professor.

Thus understanding of the Institute and Professor in contrast to that known in Indonesia. Institut is an institution which is a unit either inside or outside the university with the main activity conducted research in specific disciplines. Therefore, within the university, in a scientific discipline can have a lot of the Institute. Meanwhile, outside the university also has research institutes, each of which is divided in many of the Institute.

For example, in the disciplines of geodesy there are 4 Institute, and two of which are subdivided each of the Abteilung 2. Both the Institute and the Abteilung was led by a regular professor (Universität ordentlicher Professor / o.Univ.Prof). This professor is a professor of internationally recruited to assume office as leader of the Institute to structural retirement.

Please note, that in addition to the University, in Austria the title Professor is also used by elementary and secondary school teachers who have reached certain ranks. Usually fairly easy to distinguish. Doctoral University Professor usually always (except at the high school of art), and usually write "Univ." in front of the "Prof." him.

In addition to the regular professor (o.Univ.Prof) there are also extraordinary professor (außerordentlicher / ao.Univ.Prof) are generally served as deputy head of an institute, which is large enough, professor emeritus (em. Univ. Prof), visiting professor (Gast. Prof.), and honorary professor (Hon. Prof.) is generally one of the many qualified teachers contributed to the world of science but has no career at the university.

A great teacher qualifications and right to guide the doctoral candidate, in Austria called Universität Dozent / Univ.-Doz. The qualification process is called habilitation. Thus the term "teacher" is used in Indonesia has different meanings. In Austria, teachers are not qualified university professors are not called "professors", but "university teacher" (Universitätslehrer). In addition to the professor, a lecturer at the university (including those who are qualified professors), generally are not civil servants (Beamte), but works at the university with the contract system. Therefore, a matter of course, if a teacher is out of contract the university moved to the private sector or a position at another university, including overseas. There are even times when the professor in terms of which position is that the candidate should have several years of a career outside the university.

A department or program of study, not related to a particular Institute or Abteilung, but can be hooked up with a lot of the Institute or the Abteilung. Because it is known as the study commission (Studienkomission / Stucco), which became a reference for a student to know the program of study. Led the study commission called stucco-Präsident selected every two years from among the professors related fields. Stucco is competent to decide the new curriculum (Studienplan) or assessment of diploma students from outside.

Both the level up to level stucco and the Senate, the principle of democracy is always used, which comprises 25% of the professor or teacher, 25% Mittelbau (secondary academic staff), 25% non-academic personnel, and 25% of student representatives. Because the provisions of the Act such as this, the position of the student union Austria (OH) is quite strong.

Functions of the University in Education system Austria

When in Indonesia known as "tri-college dharma" (education, research and community service), then in Austria, the first function actually research university, both education (Lehre und Forschung) and three community service. Because it's no wonder, when sometimes found an Institute for research into a particular discipline, it can even lead a doctoral candidate, but does not offer regular courses for students after the SMTA. Community service functions are intended for close cooperation between the university and the community including industry practitioners. Here, both parties benefit. Communities obtain the latest knowhow and research services that may be too expensive when done privately, are finding new applications for the university he developed a method and a source of funds that are not small. On most fields of science (especially the exact sciences), approximately 40% -60% of research funds come from contracts with community practitioners.

Education system Austria in EU

Although already united in the EU (Europe Union / EU) education systems of member countries are still very heterogeneous, both in the name of the program, curriculum, degree and cost. In general, the higher education system in Austria is most similar to the system of higher education in German-speaking neighboring countries (Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland).

Until now reached a new agreement on common university entrance requirements (ie at least have a Matura or Abitur or Bakalaurat or A-Level), although in this case, in some departments and universities in several EU countries still imposed restrictions on the number of students (numerus clausus), for example SMTA to see the value of a diploma.

For higher education, in common agreement might not be happening any time soon, although there has been attempts to create a standard study load calculations, known as the European Community Course Credit Transfer System / ECTS. This effort was taken to encourage "mobility and European integration" that is by sponsoring a student from a member state who wish to take part of their studies in another member state.

Minimum period of study recognized as higher education in the EU is 3 years old, referring to the Bachelor as a first degree in English, one of the EU. While there is consensus - though not valid in general - that the EU countries that impose a system of study with a minimum period of 5 years will be matched with the Master (or second degree) in countries that recognize Bachelor (3 years).

In terms of education funding, the EU member states also impose different terms. Austria, Denmark, Finnlandia, Germany, Luxemburg, Sweden, and Greece freeing the university from school fees (SPP). There is little contribution (U.S. $ 20-40 / semester) for the student union, insurance or social facilities. For additional information, to study in the United States, a student must pay a minimum of between U.S. $ 10,000 - 15,000 per year at public universities or at least U.S. $ 20,000 - 25,000 in private universities.

However, when the countries' free-SPP "economic deficit, it is not uncommon to draw out ideas from the students tuition. Many models have been developed, such as the attractive tuition if a student does not successfully complete his studies until a certain time limit, or pay in advance, and will be refunded if the student completed on time and so on. In Austria today has been done is to remove subsidies on student Austria citizens when their studies are not in accordance with the schedule. Student union protested on the grounds that the delay was often due to a lack of counseling for prospective students, so many are stuck in majors that do not match. In addition, many students have while working to finance his life, given the assistance of parents is lacking.
Information Education system Austria
Information Education system Austria 

Information Education system Austria 

Information Education system Austria
Information Education system Austria : World Education

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